Write a 4-page article about the three-dimensional integration of semiconductor integrated circuits
a. Explain the 3D- integration technique such as Face-to-Face and Face-to-back technology
b. Summaries the research initiatives that is being done to remove heat from 3D integrated circuits using 3D thermal modeling tools and also using liquid-cooling using microchannels.
c. Discuss about the hybrid thermal management technologies adopted in 3D integrated circuits to remove heat from the intermediate layers.
d. Discuss how vertical interconnects are used for signal transmission as well as heat transfer from a hotspot to cold spot.