Guidelines to frame the chapters
Chapter 3 – Literature Review (Themes)
Chapter 4 – Theoretical Framework
Chapter 5- Discussion and Conclusion
Chapter 3-Systematic Literature review
References Papers(use these papers for literature review)
1. Boyle, L., Grainger, R., Hall, R. M., & Krebs, J. D. (2017). Use of and beliefs about mobile phone apps for diabetes self-management: surveys of people in a hospital diabetes clinic and diabetes health professionals in New Zealand. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 5(6), e85.
2. Dhillon, J. S., Ramos, C., Wünsche, B. C., & Lutteroth, C. (2011). Designing a web-based telehealth system for elderly people: An interview study in New ZealandIEEE. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the 2011 24th International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS)
3. Dhillon, J. S., Wünsche, B. C., & Lutteroth, C. (2012). Evaluation of a web-based telehealth system: a preliminary investigation with seniors in New Zealand Symposium conducted at the meeting of the Proceedings of the 13th International Conference of the NZ Chapter of the ACM’s Special Interest Group on Human-Computer Interaction
4. Gauld, R., Al-wahaibi, S., Chisholm, J., Crabbe, R., Kwon, B., Oh, T., . . . Sohn, S. (2011). Scorecards for health system performance assessment: the New Zealand example. Health Policy, 103(2-3), 200-208.
5. Honey, M., Collins, E., & Britnell, S. (2020). Education Into Policy: Embedding Health Informatics to Prepare Future Nurses—New Zealand Case Study. JMIR Nursing, 3(1), e16186.
6. Honey, M., Skiba, D. J., Procter, P., Foster, J., Kouri, P., & Nagle, L. M. (2017). Nursing informatics competencies for entry to practice: the perspective of six countries. Stud Health Technol Inform, 232, 51-61.
7. Honey, M. L., & Westbrooke, L. A. (2012). Nursing Informatics in New Zealand: From History to Strategy. American Medical Informatics Association. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the NI 2012: 11th International Congress on Nursing Informatics, June 23-27, 2012, Montreal, Canada.
8. Hübner, U., Shaw, T., Thye, J., Egbert, N., de Fatima Marin, H., Chang, P., . . . Blake, R. (2018). Technology informatics guiding education reform–TIGER: An international recommendation framework of core competencies in health informatics for Nurses. Methods of information in medicine, 57(Suppl 1), e30.
9. Hunter, I., Haining Ede, G., & Whiddett, R. (2014). Increased electronic information sharing by sexual health services: Confidentiality and consent. Health Informatics Journal, 20(1), 3-12.
10. Laxman, K., Krishnan, S. B., & Dhillon, J. S. (2015). Barriers to adoption of consumer health informatics applications for health self management. Health Science Journal, 9(5), 1.
11. Mallett, R., Hagen-Zanker, J., Slater, R., & Duvendack, M. (2012). The benefits and challenges of using systematic reviews in international development research. Journal of Development Effectiveness, 4(3), 445-455. https://doi.org/10.1080/19439342.2012.711342
12. Martín-Sánchez, F., & Gray, K. (2014). Recognition of health informatics in Australian standard classifications for research, occupation and education Symposium conducted at the meeting of the HIC
13. McKenna, R. (2010). Using information and communications technology to enable the exchange of information between New Zealand clinicians and health providers. New Zealand Medical Journal, 123(1314), 92-98.
14. Okoli, C., & Schabram, K. (2010, 05/05). A Guide to Conducting a Systematic Literature Review of Information Systems Research. SSRN Electronic Journal, 10. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1954824
15. Parry, D., Hunter, I., Honey, M., Holt, A., Day, K., Kirk, R., & Cullen, R. (Eds.). (2013). Building an educated health informatics workforce-The New Zealand experience [Conference Paper]. 188, 86-90. Retrieved from https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84894256579&doi=10.3233%2f978-1-61499-266-0-86&partnerID=40&md5=371f075ab24d1bc93627424a4343afd8 https://doi.org/10.3233/978-1-61499-266-0-86
16. Parry, D., Hunter, I., Honey, M., Holt, A., Day, K., Kirk, R., & Cullen, R. (Eds.). (2013). Health informatics community priming in a small nation: The New Zealand experience [Conference Paper]. 192, 950. Retrieved from https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84894290658&doi=10.3233%2f978-1-61499-289-9-950&partnerID=40&md5=16c4c04adbe725851d495e74da800290 https://doi.org/10.3233/978-1-61499-289-9-950
17. Paton, C., Househ, M., & Malik, M. (2013). The challenges of publishing on health informatics in developing countries. Applied clinical informatics, 4(3), 428.
18. Paton, C., Margaret, M., Fernandez-Luque, L., & Lau, A. Y. (2012). Self-tracking, social media and personal health records for patient empowered self-care.
19. Siricharoen, W. V. (2015). Infographic role in helping communication for promoting health and well-being Symposium conducted at the meeting of the Conference: proceedings of the second international conference on computer science, computer engineering, and education technologies (CSCEET2015). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
20. Tye, M. L., Honey, M., & Day, K. (2020). School-based telemedicine: Perceptions about a telemedicine model of care. Health Informatics Journal, 26(3), 2030-2041.
21. Vest, J. R. (Ed.) (2012). Health information exchange: National and international approaches [Article]. 12, 3-24. Retrieved from https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84865811327&doi=10.1108%2fS1474-8231%282012%290000012005&partnerID=40&md5=69af58558553e845731aea85c8a9e3bd https://doi.org/10.1108/S1474-8231(2012)0000012005
22. Warren, D., Paton, C., & Pollock, M. (2010). Development of a Web 2.0 Health Innovation Exchange for New ZealandHealth Informatics Society of Australia. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the HIC 2010: Proceedings; 18th Annual Health Informatics Conference: Informing the Business of Healthcare, 24-26 August 2010, Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Centre
23. Warren, J. (2019). How will AI change health care delivery? NZ Med. Student J, 10-12.
24. Al-Qirim, N. Championing telemedicine adoption and utilization in healthcare organizations in New Zealand. International journal of medical informatics, 76, 1 (2007), 42-54.
25. Blakely, T., Atkinson, J., Kvizhinadze, G., Nghiem, N., McLeod, H., Davies, A. and Wilson, N. Updated New Zealand health system cost estimates from health events by sex, age and proximity to death: further improvements in the age of’big data’. The New Zealand Medical Journal (Online), 128, 1422 (2015), 13.
26. Bowden, N., Thabrew, H., Kokaua, J., Audas, R., Milne, B., Smiler, K., Stace, H., Taylor, B. and Gibb, S. Autism spectrum disorder/Takiwātanga: An Integrated Data Infrastructure-based approach to autism spectrum disorder research in New Zealand. Autism, 24, 8 (2020), 2213-2227.
27. Brabyn, L. and Beere, P. Population access to hospital emergency departments and the impacts of health reform in New Zealand. Health Informatics Journal, 12, 3 (2006), 227-237.
28. Cherrington, Marianne, et al. “Digital Asset Management: New Opportunities from High Dimensional Data—A New Zealand Perspective.” Advances in Asset Management and Condition Monitoring. Springer, Cham, 2020. 183-193.
29. Dhillon, J. S., Wünsche, B. C. and Lutteroth, C. Accessible telehealth — Leveraging consumer-level technologies and social networking functionalities for senior care. City, 2013.
30. Dhillon, J. S., Wünsche, B. C. and Lutteroth, C. An Online Social-Networking Enabled Telehealth System for Seniors-A Case Study. City, 2013.
31. Galpottage, P. and Norris, A. Patient consent principles and guidelines for e-consent: a New Zealand perspective. Health Informatics Journal, 11, 1 (2005), 5-18.
32. Gauld, R. and Williams, S. Use of the internet for health information: A study of Australians and New Zealanders. Informatics for Health and Social Care, 34, 3 (2009/09/01 2009), 149-158.
33. Gauld, R., Al-wahaibi, S., Chisholm, J., Crabbe, R., Kwon, B., Oh, T., Palepu, R., Rawcliffe, N. and Sohn, S. Scorecards for health system performance assessment: the New Zealand example. Health Policy, 103, 2-3 (2011), 200-208.
34. Grain, H. and Schaper, L. Building an educated health informatics workforce–the New Zealand experience. IOS Press, City, 2013.
35. HONEY, M. and WESTBROOKE, L. Evolving National Strategy Driving Nursing Informatics in New Zealand. Nursing Informatics 2016 (2016), 183.
36. Jacobs, S. and Bowden, T. THE Project-Total Healthcare e-Enablement: Incremental Expansion of the New Zealand e-Health Environment. HIC 2006 and HINZ 2006: Proceedings (2006), 523.
37. Jagannath, R. Economic Development and Quality Care with Health Informatics-with Special Reference to New Zealand. Health Informatics Society of Australia (HISA); Royal Australian College of …, City, 2003.
38. Kerr, K. and Norris, T. Data quality maturity in the New Zealand health sector. Healthcare Review Online, 10, 3 (2006).
39. Kerr, K. The institutionalisation of data quality in the New Zealand health sector. University of Auckland, 2006.
40. Monsen, K., Honey, M. and Wilson, S. Meaningful use of a standardized terminology to support the electronic health record in New Zealand. Applied clinical informatics, 1, 4 (2010), 368.
41. Ni Mhurchu, C., Whittaker, R., McRobbie, H., Ball, K., Crawford, D., Michie, J., Jiang, Y., Maddison, R., Waterlander, W. and Myers, K. Feasibility, acceptability and potential effectiveness of a mobile health (mHealth) weight management programme for New Zealand adults. BMC Obesity, 1, 1 (2014/07/27 2014), 10.
42. Parackal, M., Parackal, S., Eusebius, S. and Mather, D. The use of Facebook advertising for communicating public health messages: a campaign against drinking during pregnancy in New Zealand. JMIR public health and surveillance, 3, 3 (2017), e49.
43. Parry, D., Holt, A. and Gillies, J. Using the Internet to teach health informatics: a case study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 3, 3 (2001), e26.
44. Parry, D., Jennings, H., Symonds, J., Ravi, K. and Wright, M. Supporting the visually impaired using RFID technology. City, 2008.
45. Protti, D., Bowden, T. and Johansen, I. Adoption of information technology in primary care physician offices in New Zealand and Denmark, part 5: final comparisons. Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics, 17, 1 (2009), 17-22.
46. Protti, D., Bowden, T. and Johansen, I. Adoption of information technology in primary care physician offices in New Zealand and Denmark, Part 3: Medical record environment comparisons. Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics, 16, 4 (2008), 285-290.
47. Verbiest, M., Borrell, S., Dalhousie, S., Tupa’i-Firestone, R., Funaki, T., Goodwin, D., Grey, J., Henry, A., Hughes, E. and Humphrey, G. A co-designed, culturally-tailored mHealth tool to support healthy lifestyles in Māori and Pasifika communities in New Zealand: protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial. JMIR research protocols, 7, 8 (2018), e10789.
48. Wells, S. and Bullen, C. A near miss: the importance of context in a public health informatics project in a New Zealand case study. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 15, 5 (2008), 701-704.
49. Whiddett, D., Tretiakov, A. and Hunter, I. The use of information technologies for knowledge sharing by secondary healthcare organisations in New Zealand. International journal of medical informatics, 81, 7 (2012), 500-506.
50. Yogarajan, V., Mayo, M. and Pfahringer, B. Privacy protection for health information research in New Zealand district health boards. The New Zealand Medical Journal (Online), 131, 1485 (2018), 19-26.
51. HONEY, M., & WESTBROOKE, L. (2016). Evolving National Strategy Driving Nursing Informatics in New Zealand. Nursing Informatics 2016, 183.
52. Hübner, U., Shaw, T., Thye, J., Egbert, N., de Fatima Marin, H., Chang, P., . . . Blake, R. (2018). Technology informatics guiding education reform–TIGER: An international recommendation framework of core competencies in health informatics for Nurses. Methods of information in medicine, 57(Suppl 1), e30.
53. McKenna, R. (2010). Using information and communications technology to enable the exchange of information between New Zealand clinicians and health providers. New Zealand Medical Journal, 123(1314), 92-98.
54. Siricharoen, W. V. (2015). Infographic role in helping communication for promoting health and well-being Symposium conducted at the meeting of the Conference: proceedings of the second international conference on computer science, computer engineering, and education technologies (CSCEET2015). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Chapter 4 – Theoretical Framework Guidelines
The fourth chapter on the theoretical framework is dependent on 3rd chapter (literature review). In the chapter on the literature review, you would have presented the description of themes. In the chapter on the theoretical framework, you will look at the themes analytically and describe the relationship between the themes. That’s why having distinct themes in chapter three is very important. After describing the themes in chapter 3, you can then explain how these themes are related to each other and how these themes can help improve the design of interventions in health informatics in NZ. For example, can specific educational or training programs be launched that are based on a particular theme?
It would help if you also looked at PGR1 form where you have described the research problem. That should also guide the writing of chapter four.
In summary, chapter four is your analysis of the themes, their inter-relationships, and the insights that you have obtained while developing these themes.
Systematic Literature review of the major themes in New Zealand Health Informatics Research
What are the major themes in the New Zealand Health Informatics Research?
In the last decade, health informatics has emerged as an important discipline in the New Zealand Health Management landscape. The importance of better management of health-related data and drawing insights from these is gaining momentum. Consequently, this research seeks to explore the major themes in the New Zealand Health Informatics Research. The research uses a systematic literature review to identify the major themes. Based on the research findings, a theoretical framework is presented that can guide health informatics researchers. The framework will help the researchers to identify the niche research themes that can be investigated further. This study will also guide health informatics policies in the nation.
Literature/Past Research Review
Health care informatics is a discipline that relates the health care medical practice with the use of information technology and business. Health care informatics focuses on health data management and its analysis to facilitate the organization’s problem solving and decision-making. A preliminary review of the selected research papers indicates some distinct health informatics research themes in New Zealand. For example, health informatics research in New Zealand focuses on addressing diabetics and obesity (Gauld et al., 2011). Another important research theme relates to providing online access to senior citizens for telemedicine systems (Dhillon, Wunsche, &Lutteroth, 2012). One stream of health informatics research has focused on health professionals’ roles (such as nurses) and how health informatics can improve the professionals’ working conditions by making them more informed (Honey & Westbrooke, 2012).
Similarly, some studies have discussed incorporating health informatics in the educational curriculum of the health professionals’ undergraduate education (Honey, Collins & Britnell, 2020; Honey et al., 2017). Thus the preliminary review indicates patterns in the themes of health informatics research in New Zealand. This research explores the informatics research landscape in greater detail through a systematic literature review.
Globally, knowledge of health informatics competencies and local content’s importance are identified as important themes in Health Informatics. It is important to understand the local content of health informatics as such knowledge is directly needed to design the region-specific training and education programmes (Hübner, et al., 2018). In New Zealand, the need to understand the local content of health informatics led to the creation of a dedicated group of researchers and professionals in New Zealand called the Health Informatics New Zealand (HINZ – https://www.hinz.org.nz/).
The group was created to support health informatics education in New Zealand (Honey and Westbrooke, 2012). Though, there New Zealand specific studies that have tried to understand the major themes of New Zealand health informatics. However, such studies are largely specific to one topic. For instance, a survey-based study by McKenna (2010) suggests that the electronic exchange of the medical test results can greatly contribute to the overall efficiency of the New Zealand health industry. Similarly, another study suggests that health infographics skills will be a major requirement of the New Zealand health sector (Siricharoen, 2015).
There are no studies that have presented an overall analysis of the NZ Health Informatics landscape. The result of this research gap is that information about the major themes of the New Zealand Informatics landscape is not available. This study seeks to address this gap and takes an overall view of the New Zealand Health Informatics landscape. The research outcomes will provide information about the local content and directly contribute to the development of training programmes on health informatics. Apart from designing the training programmes, the research on the major themes is also useful for the design of topic guides and survey questionnaires (McKenna, 2010). Therefore, an analysis of the New Zealand health informatics landscape themes is of direct relevance for the New Zealand health industry. The specific research question that the study addresses is: What are the major themes in the New Zealand Health Informatics Research?
Design/Plan of the Study:
The study will be conducted as secondary research encompassing research studies on New Zealand Health Informatics. The research will make use of a systematic literature review. One widely used definition of a systematic literature review is obtained from Fink (2005, quoted in Okoli and Schabram, 2010, p. 4). According to this definition, a systematic literature review is “a systematic, explicit, [comprehensive, (2007, p. 17)] and reproducible method for identifying, evaluating, and synthesizing the existing body of completed and recorded work produced by researchers, scholars, and practitioners.” According to Mallet et al. (2012), systematic reviews place greater attention on causality, impact, evidence, and impact; therefore, they are efficient in evaluating the evidence’s robustness. Therefore, this method has been chosen for this study. According to (Okoli & Schabram, 2010), a systematic literature review involves eight steps that are discussed below:
The first step in the Systematic Literature Review is identifying the purpose of the study. Here the researcher should find out the grounds and scope for conducting the literature review.
2. Protocol and training:
According to Fink (2005, quoted in Okoli and Schabram, 2010, p. 15), a protocol defines the systematic acts and policy undertaken during the review process followed by crew training. Any research process can encounter problems and limitations, which would be minimized by developing necessary counter-strategies. Therefore, it is a three-stage process that encompasses preparing the research questionnaire, designing the protocol, and training the reviewers.
3. Searching for literature:
Once a protocol that outlines the study’s data range is defined, the researcher can explore various literature relevant to the study. The source of data can either be a traditional source (library) or the internet. Through exhaustive research about the subject matter, a careful literature review can be ensured and, at the same time, constant efforts to be made for managing the references.
4. Practical screening:
A thorough literature search will eventually result in an enormous volume of studies. However, most of them may be inappropriate for the research question. The criteria for practical screening is not only the quality of the content. The researcher should ensure that the selected topic has relevant content for the research question and restrict the total number of articles within a practically manageable limit.
5. Quality appraisal:
Articles selected through the screening should undergo a quality check to ensure their minimum standard of acceptance. Moreover, the review’s quality is also dependent on the quality of the articles chosen for the preliminary study. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to rate the studies using appropriate criteria. Based on the nature of primary research (qualitative or quantitative), the appraisal method will also vary.
6. Data extraction:
At this stage, the reviewer will have an exhaustive list of articles for the final review. So the relevant data can be scientifically taken out from each article, which can be used as a tool for the next stage. The reviewer has to refer back to the protocol phase while deciding the type of data that needs to be retrieved.
7. Synthesis of studies:
During the synthesis phase, the reviewer will combine the articles to create a comprehensive view of the studies selected. The reviewer needs to organize the data after proper organization, discussions, and comparisons. A proper synthesis will ensure complete and polished information, which will help write the literature.
8. Writing the review:
The final step in the Systematic Literature Review is writing the review and reporting the findings. The literature review must be documented with enough details with scientific sense. The review should wrap up by presenting any innovative findings.
Chapter 5 – Discussion & conclusion
Subheadings mandatorily needed
3. Future research / gap …