1) Introduce the debate about solutions/responses to the problem:
– Take a paragraph to introduce the overall debate about the responses to this problem. Consider that you are transitioning from the Causal Analysis – this section comes right after WP4 in the final paper – wherein you summarized for the reader the possible causes of this sustainability problem, while arguing for where you stand on the debate. Now your reader is probably wondering what possible solutions might be available, so it’s a good idea in this paragraph to start by framing that very question:
▪ Ask: How best can (the sustainability problem) be solved?
▪ Transition: Tell your reader that this (above) is a complex problem to solve, and that there is a debate about the best responses because…
▪ Overview of debate: Explain how there are many different approaches to responding to this issue, but that you will be focusing on 2 possible actions that seem most promising – then name them.
2) Explain possible response/action by comparing 2 that your think are good ideas; analyze the evidence supporting it and the objections to it.
– For each response/action, take at least one paragraph to develop fully each:
▪ Summarize the response/action:
- Who developed it, and who supports it?
- When/where was it proposed and implement?
- What does it involve, exactly?
- Do your best to explain the specifics in your own words.
▪ Analyze the response/action:
- Present ALL the evidence and logical reasons supporting this approach to the issue – here are 5 logical criteria that MAY be helpful in framing your argument:
o Root cause: Does the solution address the root causes of the problem?
o Comparison/historical: Has the solution worked before in another, similar context?
o Coverage: Does this solution cover the most people, or the neediest people?
o Cost/Benefit Analysis: Do the benefits outweigh the costs, in terms of money, energy, time, people’s well-being, etc.?
o Feasibility: Can the solution be implemented quickly, cheaply, effectively, with widespread support or enforcement?
▪ Discuss objections to/limitations of this response/action
- Objections: What might critics say who DON’T agree or believe that this response is the best approach?
- Responses: How might proponents of this response respond by conceding or counter-arguing? (For help on this, see Graff’s templates on Metacommentary from TSIS on BB.)
3) End with your position – Where is the best response and why?
– Take at least one paragraph to develop YOUR position on the best response/action we can take to address this sustainability issue.
– Having considered all sides and reviewed all the evidence, take your “I say” position in the debate. Agree (with at least a slight difference) with a particular response, propose a mix of responses (showing how they could combine), or offer a new potential response/action. But either way, be prepared to add something new to the conversation—don’t just affirm a “They Say” as it stands.
– Why are you taking this position? List reasons and evidence to persuade your reader.
– How would you respond to objections? concede (“Yes, that may be somewhat true…”) or counter-argue (“Actually, that critique is wrong, because…”).
4) Conclusion: SO WHAT?
– Close with a compelling re-assertion of why we should care and why we (citizens, governments, societies, human beings, etc.) should/must act soon!
▪ You might want to circle back by revisiting your opening case study and remind the reader of the original case/problem that began your paper.
▪ Then re-assert the arguments you’ve made regarding the causes/responses to this sustainability issue.
– Don’t just repeat the exact “so what” from your introduction – expand and develop it.
▪ You could end on a hopeful note, discussing promising steps or developments that are being made with regard to your possible solution.
▪ Or you could end on a pessimistic note, describing the dire consequences that are certain to happen if the responses/actions you proposed are not taken.
***Bibliography – entitled “References” in APA format
– Include APA-formatted citations (no summary paragraphs) for all the sources you cited in the Casual Analysis
▪ Remember the names in your parenthetical in-text citations MUST match the names listed in your References.
- Remember to alphabetize the list by last name (or first word).
RESPONSE #1 FOR ADDRESSING YOUR SUSTAINABILITY ISSUE
|Summarize the response claim||One action, policy, program, or systemic change that addresses the problem is…|
Who developed/supports it?
When/where was it proposed and implement?
What does it involve, exactly? Be specific to inform the reader.
|Explain the solution-effect chain||How does this response address one of the key causes of the sustainability issue?|
How does it propose to work, exactly?
|Analyze rationales/ evidence supporting this response||Possible rationales?|
• Root cause
• Comparison/ historical
• Cost/Benefit Analysis
|Evidence (Study, statistics, facts, quote, story, etc.) or logic supporting this action?|
(What does this show?)
|Discuss objections or limits to this response||Possible objections from critics?|
(Concede or counter-argue with evidence)