Hello. You have to do a UK PHILOSOPHICAL CRITICAL AND ANALYTICAL ESSAY. Read carefully the instructions. Follow every step when planning and writing
the essay. The question you have to answer is: “Explain the phenomenological distinction between the body as subject and body as object. Consider this
distinction in detail, discuss examples or case studies that seem to support it, and critically analyze both strengths and weaknesses of this way of thinking
about embodiment.” It is a long question, but DO NOT FORGET ANY of the questions you have to critcally answer.
Now, I’m going to explain how I want you to do the essay . The essay has to have SCHOLARSHIP, INDEPENDENCE, and ORGANIZATION characteristics.
1- SCHOLARSHIP: demonstrate an understanding of the material. A grasp of different authors’ views; knowledge of a debate, especially the arguments
involved. For EACH ARGUMENT YOU INVOLVED you have to explain: Why we should think this or that? What the main challenges for a view are? How a
conclusion is supported? This requires to you to use the readings, it is compulsory for you to use Gallagher, S. and Zahavi, D. (2008)“The Embodied
Mind”.and Heinämaa, S. (2012). “The Body.” Then you have to read at least 20 of any of the other readings. Obviously you can use them all. In total, you will
have to use at least 22 readings.
2- INDEPENDENCE: you must develop a new example or thought-experiment, therefore it is ESSENTIAL you use examples and case studies (there are many
on the readings). You have to point out an interesting flaw in an argument, or an interesting implication of a view; take an idea from one author and applying it
to another; draw an interesting connection; explain a difficult point in an especially clear or helpful way; unpack an overlooked detail and show its importance
and have a focus that isn’t simply drawn from the lecture content.
3- ORGANISATION: have clear aims and a clear structure. You must include the structure you are going to follow in the introduction. It must be clear what the
essay intends to do, and how the author intends to defend the particular point. A it is a 3025 words paper, you can even discuss briefly in the introduction why
it is important to think about this matter. You must give a clear answer to the title question. Encouraged to use things like –> “I will argue that such-and-such”;
“In this section, I will explain why such-and-such”; “I have argued that such-and-such, and it follows that…”; “In my view, …” IT IS VERY IMPORTANT THAT each
section of the essay must have a clear role in establishing your conclusion. DON’T JUMP BETWEEN TOPICS WITHOUT A CLEAR RATIONALE. Argue in a
direct way, informed by background reading.
THINGS YOU MUST AVOID IN THE ESSAY: Defending a conclusion in ways that draw a bit too closely on what was said in the lecture notes. Showing grasp of
only a rather limited amount of reading. Using only the examples found in the lectures. Having limited authorial voice of your own: just presenting a list of
arguments / positions.
Be critical, analytical, follow the scholarship, independence and organization guidelines, IT IS VERY IMPORTANT. For answering the philosophical question
YOU MUST use at least 22 readings. In the essay you have to show: your depth of understanding of the issues, your ability to critically reconstruct and
engage with arguments and debates in the literature. Make sure you do a well structured essay, with an introduction which specially shows each paragraph’s
main argument. It must be clear what the essay intends to do, and how you intend to defend the particular point. On the body structure, each section must
have a clear role in establishing the conclusion. For the conclusion, you have to summarize what you have said in the essay and give a clear final answer to
LAST BUT NOT LEAST, you have to reference in a very accurate way, using the Harvard referencing style. Besides when you reference in the text, put also the
exact page where you found or rely on that information. Remember to use a quality language