Your test grade is determined beyond simple accuracy. You grade will depend on:
1. how well you presented information in the context the way we studied the certain essay
topic/identification term in this History course (identification pairs and essay),
2. whether you included and engaged extensively with the primary sources (essay),
3. how many terms from the weekly outlines (access: Blackboard – Content – Weekly Outlines) relevant to
the essay topic did you plug into your answer (essay)
Format of the Final Exam:
1. NON- CUMULATIVE (50 points) = Identification pairs and an Essay on topics covered since the Second
Exam (Weeks 11, 12, 13, 14 and 16 – ending, and including the topic of the Cold War)
2. CUMULATIVE (50 points) = Essay on topics covered since the beginning of the semester.
3. Bonus points (up to 10 points) = brief essay (1-2 paragraphs) assessing the general takeaways you have
from this History class. The essay question will be available on the day of the Final Exam as the part of the
Identification Pairs – 20 points
There will be a list of identification pairs – important people, movements, events, political entities, concepts,
etc. coming straight from the weekly outlines of the lectures. You must select 2 identification pairs.
For EACH chosen pair, in a long and coherent narrative paragraph you must:
(1) Identify each term by answering the typical WHO/WHAT, WHERE, WHEN?
(2) Discuss the relationships between the terms. What connections can you make between the two terms?
How and why are these two terms related? What is the historical significance of this relationship?
Non-Cumulative Essay – 30 points
Below are 3 essay questions; only two of these essay topics will appear on the final exam – meaning that
one of these topics will not appear on the Final Exam). You will select only one to answer out of two
appearing on the Final Exam.
1. When World War I erupted in August of 1914, most people felt that this would be a short, decisive fight.
What factors dashed these expectations and what steps did the combatant nations have to take to wage
“total war”? What were the causes of the World War I? What was the experience of the trench warfare? In
what ways did the war transform life on the home front? How did women respond to the military
mobilization? How did the war end and in what ways was the peace settlement that followed flawed? How
did the intellectual and scientific developments before and after the World War I (1890-1930) change
European society during the Age of Anxiety?
2. One of the most portentous consequences of World War One was the collapse of the Imperial Russian
regime and the triumph of the Communist ideology in Russia. Describe the rise to power of Vladimir Lenin
and Joseph Stalin. What events led to the February Revolution and the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia?
Why did world war lead to revolution in Russia? Why did Bolsheviks triumph? What policies did Lenin’s
Bolsheviks pursue once in power? What were some of the Stalin’s policies and what are the chief features
of Stalin’s version of totalitarianism? In what ways were totalitarian regimes – especially Nazi Germany and
Stalinist Russia – similar, and in what ways were they different?
3. Although he came to office by legitimate means, Hitler moved rapidly and brutally to fulfill his program by
creating a new kind of anti-democratic state, and took actions that caused the outbreak of the Second
World War. Describe the chain of events that led to Hitler’s rise to power since 1920s. How did he use the
power ? How can we historically explain popular support for Hitler in Germany in 1930s? What were the
consequences of Hitler’s regime for the German people? For the German economy? In 1930s, Hitler
undertook a series of moves that eventually led to the outbreak of the World War Two. Describe what these
moves were and what was British and French response. Could Hitler have been stopped? Why did the
British and French not attempt to? What were some of the main events of the World War II? How was the
pursuit of ‘racial hygiene’ justified by the Nazi regime and what were it’s consequences? What major
factors led to the allies’ – meaning, U.S.S.R, Britain and America – victory and how did the Allied victory
lead to the Cold War2. Cumulative:
Cumulative Essay – 50 points
*****Because in this essay you are required to address topics covered since the beginning of the semester,
THIS ESSAY NEEDS TO BE MORE ELABORATE, INCLUDE MORE EXAMPLES/MORE REFERENCES
TO HISTORICAL FIGURES AND EVENTS/MORE PRIMARY SOURCES THAN THE NON-CUMULATIVE
Below are 4 essay questions; three of these essay topics will appear on the final exam, meaning that one
of these topics will not appear on the Final Exam. You will select only one to answer out of two appearing
on the Final Exam.
1. Absolutist monarchies and modern totalitarian states represent political regimes in which people in
charge, whether absolutist monarchs or Fascist/Communist dictators often rule with an iron fist to
consolidate maximum power. Write an essay in which you are comparing and contrasting the absolutist
monarchies – France, Russia, Austria – of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to the modern
totalitarian states in Europe – both Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union – of the twentieth century. What
were the ways in which they maintained power and secured obedience? What do you think accounts for
the differences between the two systems (absolutist and totalitarian)?
2. The conventional view during the Enlightenment was that humans are firmly set on positive trajectory,
moving steadily upward on the scale of progress, liberty and equality. Marquis de Condorcet, the seminal
figure of the eighteenth century Enlightenment, offered optimistic prognosis of the future, promising
inevitable “abolition of inequality between nations, the progress of equality within each nation, and the true
perfection of mankind.” Write an essay in which you explain whether you agree or disagree with Condorcet
by making references to multiple historical events/people/primary sources since the beginning of the
semester. Based on your knowledge of history as learned in HY 102, was this true of European societies
since the eighteenth century? Was Condorcet correct in assuming that societies can only progress towards
more liberty, equality and justice, and not regress? Since eighteenth century, did the Western societies
experience only improvements (in politics, science, technology, ideology) or was the progress at times
obstructed and the clock of progress dialed back? Lastly, in your opinion, what are some of the most
pressing areas in which the ideas of liberty, equality and justice, as championed by the modern history’s
revolutions (e.g. French Revolution), have not yet been achieved in the society and what/who do you think
stands in the way of progress?
3. Throughout history every regime or a political system faced critics challenging the status quo. Who were
some of the most prominent critics in Europe since the seventeenth century? What were the principal ideas
or theories by people including, but not limited to, Adam Smith, Carl Marx, Abbe Sieyes and Emily
Pankhurst? (Feel free to bring up as many other examples as you can think of) In what ways did their
criticisms and theories change the course of the history? What significant changes were inspired by each of
them? What is the role of those who criticize the established system, or an established ideology? How have
their ideas, considered radical at the time, pushed society towards progress?
4. Although this course focused predominantly on the study of the Western Civilizations as series of events
initiated by men (emperors, kings, dictators, scientist, philosophers) who were holding their respective
positions of power, we’ve also seen that women led active lives, participated in historical decisions, aninfluenced the outcomes in history. Discuss the role of women as historical actors, movers and shakers
since the seventeenth century through modern times. Who were the prominent and influential women of
Western Civilizations? How did they challenge the traditional gender roles? Did the fact that they were
women help or worsen their circumstances? What were some of the challenges they had to face, and what
were some of the advantages they enjoyed due to their gender? What are their legacies and what lessons
can be drawn from their experiences for the future generation of female leaders?