health issue/behavior: Covid-19 Vaccinations
intended audience: Adults 65 years and older
Instructions: In this paper, you are required to create health communication messages and examine their
characteristics (including formats and contents); critically compare and contrast different communication
channels; and analyze the characteristics of your communicator (sources) and receivers. The paper will be
broken up into seperate parts, I have written everything but the introduction and the theory section. Intro
needs to be 1 page long, theory section needs to be 2 pages long. Both the in-text citations and references
should follow7th edition APA citation format.
1. Introduction including formative research: introduction of your health communication campaign including
your plan for formative research (1 page);
2. Theoretical framework: informing the reader which theoretical frameworks you choose and how they are
applied in your health communication campaign (2 page); (focus on the Elaboration Likelihood Theory and
how that theory can be used in this health campaign)
1a. Below are references used for this health campaign. As per instuctions, introduce health campaign and
make a short literature review based on the references and keep in accordance to attached bibliographies:
* = reference
– = bibliography
* Boehmer, T. K., DeVies, J., Caruso, E., van Santen, K. L., Tang, S., Black, C. L., Hartnett, K. P., KitePowell, A., Dietz, S., Lozier, M., & Gundlapalli, A. V. (2020). Changing age distribution of the COVID-19
Pandemic – United States, May-August 2020. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 69(39), 1404–
– This article focuses on information and data on all age groups (including older adults) from the earlier
stages of the pandemic, such as data on the number of positive COVID-19 cases, which was reported the
highest in July 2020 for age groups 60-69 and 70-79, and highest in May 2020 for age group >80 ( when
comparing data from May 1 to Aug 31, 2020).
* Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia, Dekhtyar, Serhiy, Vetrano, Davide L, Bellander, Tom, & Fratiglioni, Laura.
(2020). COVID-19: risk accumulation among biologically and socially vulnerable older populations. Ageing
Research Reviews, 63, 101149–101149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2020.101149
– This article has an in-depth explanation of social and biological vulnerability to COVID-19 in older
populations. It also provides a data table of cumulative deaths due to COVID-19 by country as of 1-19 May
2020 for ages <60 and the older population broken into 60-69, 70- 79, and 80+ years old. * COVID-19 Provisional Counts - Weekly Updates by Select Demographic and Geographic Characteristics. (2020, October 28). Retrieved November 02, 2020, from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vsrr/covid_weekly/index.htm - This source showcases the amount of deaths due to COVID-19 in older aged adults (65 and older) as of October 28th, 2020. * COVID-19: Who's at higher risk of serious symptoms? (2020, August 21). Retrieved November 02, 2020, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronavirus/in-depth/coronavirus-who-is-at-risk/art20483301 - This source will be of great use for our team project based on the fact that it provides us with insightful information such as risk factors regarding our population of interest: older aged adults. * Dubey, S., Biswas, P., Ghosh, R., Chatterjee, S., Dubey, M. J., Chatterjee, S., Lahiri, D., & Lavie, C. J. (2020). Psychosocial impact of COVID-19. Diabetes & metabolic syndrome, 14(5), 779–788. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.05.035 - This broad article goes over the pandemic, focusing on its impact on society and how it affects people of all ages, including old age. It explains the psychological impacts and what can be done to help ease fears. * Koff, W. C., & Williams M. A. Covid-19 and immunity in aging populations — a new research agenda. The New England Journal of Medicine, 322(1), 804-805. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp2006761 - This source will be useful to implement in our group project as it highlights the challenges associated with vaccine adoption particularly among older aged populations; as a result of noncommunicable diseases which can affect the response of vaccines among this population. * Kriss, J. L., Frew, P..M., Cortes, M., Malik, F. A., Chamberlain, A. T., Seib, K., Flowers, L., Ault, K. A., Howards, P. P., Orenstein, W. A., and Omer, S. B. (2017) Evaluation of Two Vaccine Education Interventions to Improve Pertussis Vaccination among Pregnant African American Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Vaccine 35.11 (2017): 1551-558. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.01.037 - This source shows how the Elaboration Likelihood Model was successful in improving uptake of some public health interventions. The study uses the population of pregnant African American women who tend to have lower vaccine uptake compared with other groups, as an example on evaluating the effect of two ELM-based vaccine educational interventions. * Niu, Shengmei, Tian, Sijia, Lou, Jing, Kang, Xuqin, Zhang, Luxi, Lian, Huixin, & Zhang, Jinjun. (2020). Clinical characteristics of older patients infected with COVID-19: A descriptive study. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 89, 104058–104058. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2020.104058 - This source is useful as it is a descriptive study of COVID-19 on older patients by analyzing the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of them. The information includes demographic, epidemiological, clinical, classification of severity and outcomes for the study participants aged 50–64 years, 65–79 years and older than 80 years.