SECTION A: SUMMARY
1. Write a composite summary of the extracts in section B in a paragraph of about TEN sentences.
Your summary should be devoid of excessive lifting of words from the passages
SECTION B: WRITING FROM MULTIPLE SOURCES
The following are extracts from various types of academic text. The extracts contain information about the extended family and social support system in Africa.
2. Use the information provided in the extracts to write a synthesis essay of between 1000 and 1200 words on extended family and social support system in Africa.
• Underline your thesis statement.
• Your essay should demonstrate your understanding of citation practices.
• Underline the topic sentence of each body paragraph.
3. At the end of your essay, generate a reference list using the sources provided. Your reference list should be in the APA format.
Traditional African family life depended to a great extent on kinship relationships and support networks across extended family lines. In keeping with the African cultural tradition, close relatives were expected to take the initial responsibility to provide needy children and other poor members of the family with food, clothing, shelter, health care and education. Among the Luo of Western Kenya, for example, if a parent died, the surviving members of the extended family were often close at hand to ensure that the children and other dependants were cared and provided for. Part of the obligation of the extended family system was to assist those who were in need (p. 200). A more critical look at the traditional family system in Africa reveals a wide range of family relationships, marital forms and the potential for instability and child abuse. Although there is no question that polygyny was widely practised in Kenya, particularly among the rich and famous, much of the literature on the subject tends to emphasize its advantages, such as cooperation between co-wives, especially with regard to sharing child-rearing and other responsibilities, and to de-emphasize some of the problems and other dynamics associated with the practice. (p. 201).
Title: Street Children in Nairobi and the African Cultural Ideology of Kin-Based Support System Change and Challenge. Author: Collette Suda. Journal: Child Abuse Review, Volume Six (6). Pages 199 – 217. Published in 1997
In Nigeria, as in many developing countries, the lack of organised social welfare services of the type
seen in developed countries makes the extended family the only consistent source of social support for the mentally ill. In a study of 226 patients in the long-term care unit of the psychiatric hospital at
Abeokuta, south-west Nigeria, Odejide (1981) reported that discontinuation of visits by members of the extended family contributed to long or indefinite patient stays. When continued family contact is
difficult or impossible, patients discharged from hospital are frequently unable to return to their villages and become homeless. These vagrant psychotics are a frequent tragic sight in West Africa (p. 1463).
Title: Perception of The Social Support Role of the Extended Family Network by Some Nigerians with Schizophrenia and Affective Disorders. Author: Jude U. Ohaeri. Journal: Soc. Sci. Med., Volume 47, Number 10. Pages 1463 – 1472. Published in 1998
Although evidence on the capacity of the extended family to fulfill its childcare responsibilities was found to be polarised, the extended family remains a critical safety net. This study suggests that the extended family system be viewed realistically, given the dual epidemic of AIDS and poverty. Given the important role of poverty in shaping household and family capacity to respond effectively to new childcare arrangements, economic strengthening – through cash transfers – should be primary, as this will ease the financial burden of care and improve economic capacity to care. While family environments and childcare arrangements are flexible and fluid, and capable of responding to challenges – this is unsuccessful at times. Rather than total collapse or rupture, it is evident that
conceptions of family, relatedness and childcare responsibilities are innovatively being reconfigured to include a wider network of kin and social relations (p. 26).
Title: Extended Family Childcare Arrangements in a Context of AIDS: Collapse or Adaptation?
Authors: Vuyiswa Mathambo & Andy Gibbs. Journal: AIDS Care: Psychological and SocioMedical Aspects of AIDS/HIV. Pages 22 – 27. Published in 2009
When a family member is infected with HIV/AIDS, family functions and processes change. It becomes increasingly difficult to be a spouse, parent, provider, or continue any community role held before the
infection. Family relationships change to caregiver/care-receiver, and it is usually women and girls who care for the sick person. Some families that are not resilient disintegrate with the onset of infection if relations are overly strained. Often young girls must drop out of school to assist their mothers when a father is infected, and in cases where both parents are infected and ailing, daughters may be called upon to assume the role of the household head and take up the duties of providing and caring for parents and siblings. The result is that families become poorer, children drop out of school, the standard of living declines, child survival decreases, and ultimately children are orphaned (p. 53).
Title: Family Strengths and Challenges in Kenya. Authors: Jane Rose M. Njue Dorothy O. Rombo Lucy W. Ngige. Journal: Marriage and Family Review. Volume 41. Issue 1-2. Pages 41 to 70, published in 2007
It appears the general public is crying for a “return to the past” as a solution to the many social challenges confronting Botswana. This is a past where extended families reigned, and where communal values were upheld. This means resuscitating and redefining values and functioning systems which are
quickly being eroded with modernization values of respect, tolerance, togetherness, sharing, compassion (caring), honesty, discipline, dignity, solidarity, and many others. Let us remember and acknowledge that it is the observance of these core values that seems to have bound families and sustained the older generations that are becoming a rare species in Botswana. It is extremely dangerous to have a nation full of people with no morals. No matter how developed we become, it is a societal obligation to know what is right and wrong. Permissiveness should be controlled among the youth by upholding the dos and don’ts that seem to have held the moral fiber of the African culture including Botswana society (p. 45).
Title: Family Strengths Perspectives from Botswana. Author: Lois R. Mberengwa. Source:Marriage & Family Review. Volume 41. Number 1. Pages 27 – 46. Published in 2007.