1） Major: TESOL
2） Topic: An Evaluation of a Mobile Application for English-speaking Learning Beyond Classrooms: A Study of English Fun Dubbing in Chinese Universities
3） Word count: 6000 words.
4） Mobile Application: English Fun Dubbing
You can familiarise this app by watching the video on YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ejHpwSZER8
5） Number of references: 35-45
6） Reference style: Harvard. Hanging indent 2 characters.
7） You should use Table of Content and Appendix.
8） Font: Arial / Verdana. Size: 10. Double space.
9） For more literature please cite the five sessions and the associated handouts [you can find them in the lecture slides zip]. As well please read the sample file .zip – sample presentation.pdf
10） Literature related to the English Fun Dubbing App can be selected from the documents I have provided or searched online.
11） You can make appropriate references to Session 10 (on future developments in emerging technologies) in the Application and Conclusion sections.
12） Some of the literature is available at the end of this article and has been consolidated electronically inside the folder, please check it out.
13）【IMPORTANT】You are required to write the paper following my below mindset and its structure:Please try to use simple words
1. Introduction (300 words)
• You need to divide Introduction into three paragraphs.
• The first paragraph provides a basic background of relevant research (presenting basic research evidence). For example, the rapid development of technology has led to the development of technology related to education technology. Chinese university students generally have a greater demand for English language learning (especially speaking) in order to study overseas after graduation or to find higher paying jobs. However, Chinese university English classes are predominantly teacher-centred, large-size and limited in time. As a result, this leads to insufficient time for students to practise their spoken English. In addition, the teacher-centred Chinese university English classroom is difficult to improve the authentic English learning environment for students and does not meet their English-speaking learning needs. As a result, Chinese university students commonly adopt some learning software, especially English fun dubbing, to assist them in practising spoken English outside of class (reference citations are required).
• The second paragraph explains the importance of taking English fun dubbing to improve English-speaking at the end of the lesson, and you need to include an introduction to the basic features of English fun dubbing here (a brief introduction is sufficient, please refer to the article that describes the advantages of English fun dubbing). The English fun dubbing is a great way to get started. Highlight the fact that English fun dubbing is a free and powerful English dubbing software that allows users to dub characters in excerpts from English movies/TV shows/TV programmes according to users’ level and interests. As many Chinese universities do not allow students to bring their mobile phones to class, it is common for students to use English fun dubbing after class to practise their speaking (explaining why it is “after class”). It is therefore necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of English fun dubbing as an English-speaking practice software —- highlighting the importance of the content of this study (reference citations are required).
• The third paragraph describes what the research contains and the structure of the paper. And the next section is Literature Review.
2. Literature Review (2800 -2900words) —— Session 5 PPT
2.1 Evaluation and Analysis:Session 5—Start from P21
• Focus on comparing the differences between Evaluation and Analysis. You need to present separate definitions of Evaluation and Analysis, and compare the differences between Evaluation and Analysis. You do not need to compare the different definitions of evaluation and analysis given by different researchers, but rather choose the most classical interpretation of the definitions, focusing on Tomlinson’s (2013) definition of Evaluation and Analysis.
Don’t forget to write the topic sentence – first write that it is important to understand the differences between evaluation and analysis – then write the most obvious differences between evaluation and analysis – analysis focuses on providing an accurate description, whereas evaluation focuses on judgement of the applicability of the materials – after writing the differences – turn and write that evaluation and analysis are also linked before evaluating materials. After writing the differences – write that the evaluation and analysis are also linked . It is important to analyse relevant learners’ needs and specific contexts before evaluating materials. Note the literature citation.
2.2 Stages of Evaluation ——Session 5 PPT
2.2.1 Pre-use Evaluation
2.2.2 In-use Evaluation.
2.2.3 Post-use Evaluation
• The definitions of each of the three Evaluations are presented separately, explaining each stage and focusing on comparing the stages of the three Evaluations.
• Pre-use evaluation is the most common and is commonly used by teachers to assess the suitability of materials before they are applied, with a focus on prediction.
• Compared to pre-use evaluation, in-use evaluation focuses on objective measurement.
• Post-evaluation is the most valuable.
• In presenting these three Evaluations, some transitions are highlighted, i.e. some notes from the researcher on the limitations of the application of these Evaluations, as detailed in Tomlinson’s (2013) and McGrath’s (2016) books.
2.3 Evaluation Tools: ——Session 5 PPT
• You need to state that the checklist method is the most common evaluation tool and write about what checklists generally include – including criteria. Take care to synthesize the arguments of different researchers, summarize the strengths together and then turn to write about the weaknesses, limitations. You can read about this in McGrath’s (2016) book.
• Introduce the definition of criteria and highlight the importance of criteria. Different types of evaluation tools are chosen at different stages of assessment. The need to keep both users and contexts in mind when developing assessment criteria, thus highlighting the need for assessment criteria to be context-specific. (McGrath, 2016)
2.3.3 The Evaluation Tools for TELL
• The main focus is on the TELL framework by Chapelle, Leakey, and Reinders and Pegrum (Chapelle, 2001; Leakey, 2011; Reinders and Pegrum, 2016). It is also the framework that will be used in this paper.
• Firstly, you need to explain what the TELL evaluation focuses on (it is on the Lecture slides PPT) and why you did not choose the checklist of the regular assessment textbook to assess TELL, but chose the framework (Levy and Stockwell, 2006)
• You will need a separate paragraph to start introducing the above frameworks (one for each framework). Because of limited word count.Focus on the main elements of each framework, the most important criteria, and the theory on which the framework is based. Then write about the disadvantages of the framework.
• Note the contextual link – at the end of each framework the next framework is introduced.
2.4 Brief Overview of the Development of TELL——Session 4 &Session 2 PPT
2.4.1 Theories that Influence the Development of TELL-Session 4 PPT (2.4.1 P12 Start Theories of TELL) This is a key point. The tutor says that theories means grades
• You will need to present the definitions, key elements and characteristics of each of these theories, which are Constructivism, SLA, and Social Constructivism, and explain them in relation to TELL.（Set up separate sub-sections to introduce）
• Please note that there are 13 theories that influence TELL in SLA. It is not necessary to introduce each of these 13 theories, but just pick a prominent one and give an example of what this theory emphasises.
• After that, the focus is on SLA, a theory that is very controversial in TELL, and it is important to write about it here. The details are available on the Lecture slides (session 4).
• The application of Constructivism and Social Constructivism to TELL is not controversial, so you can just introduce the theory as normal and explain how it applies in relation to TELL. Note that a separate paragraph at the end summarises the application of these three theories to TELL in your own words. (Levy and Stockwell, 2006)
2.4.2 The Development of TELL-Section 2 PPT – Start from page P32
Tips:[Development of TELL, TELL development is divided into two parts Compute-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL), here write the part about CALL, you can look at Session 2 PPT [CALL can be written simply].And MALL is the main theory of this paper so it is written in 2.5]
2.5 Mobile-Assisted Language Learning —— Session 8 PPT-(from page P54 of the course on MALL)
2.5.1 Definitions of MALL
• •Introduce and compare the definitions of MALL by two different researchers and then compare which definition is more appropriate for the research context of this paper research and explain your reasons.You can read about (Kukulska-Hulme, A. and Shield, L. ,2008) (reference citations are required).
2.5.2 Features of MALL
• Just introduce the key feature of MALL – learning anytime and anywhere – Note the context and summarise in your own words.You can read about Kukulska-Hulme, A. (2009) (reference citations are required).
2.5.3 Benefits and Challenges of MALL
• You need to present the typical advantages (portability and accessibility) and typical disadvantages (the social function of the phone is heavier than the learning function) of MALL separately, so MALL may not be as effective for learning as you might think. For example, the use of learning software on the phone can be distracted by other software (games, social software, irrelevant information) and students may not be able to concentrate efficiently on using MALL.
• The advantages and disadvantages are presented in two paragraphs.
• Pay attention to the context, e.g. use transitions to introduce the disadvantages after writing about the advantages.
2.5.4 MALL and English-speaking
• You need to start by reviewing the basic literature on the advantages of using MALL for learning to speak English. You can do this in relation to some of the key points of speaking learning, such as interaction, authentic learning environment, practice, etc.
• After that, give a brief overview of some general research on the use of MALL, as a learning software, to improve spoken English, and how MALL has been used to assist speaking. For example, playing dubbing games in the software, reading along and so on.
• In this section, find two or three papers that describe the relevant research and findings, and conclude with a summary in your own words of any MALL and English-speaking related research.
2.5.5 MALL Beyond the Classroom
• You need to briefly introduce the definition of beyond the classroom, then introduce the features of beyond the classroom, such as location, formality, pedagogy, locus of control, and leaner autonomy.
• You should mainly emphasise the leaner autonomy.
2.6 Empirical Researches on Applying English Fun Dubbing to Improve English Speaking Beyond Classrooms in China
• You need to present and compare empirical research on Chinese contexts, particularly on the use of English Fun Dubbing in Chinese university contexts to improve English speaking after school.
• Use literature from within the last five years.
• Specify the research methods, number of subjects, content of the study, and main findings of each research. Note that you will need to compare and contrast the results of these studies, critically evaluate and comment on the results of these studies.
3. Context (650 words)
• You need to present information about the Chinese university context (students, teachers, institutions) and thus introduce why Chinese university students use English Fun Dubbing as a tool for practising their spoken English outside of class.
3.1 Students and English Teachers in Chinese Universities
• You need to focus on the general Chinese university students and English teachers, a brief overview is sufficient.
• Students can start with a general age distribution, background and language level (generally poor level of spoken English).
• Teachers can start with the level of teaching, the relatively high number of non-native English speakers, the uneven level of spoken English, and the teaching style (teacher-centred).(reference citations are required).
3.2 English Classrooms in Chinese Universities(reference citations are required).
• An introduction to the general situation of English classrooms in Chinese universities: large-size classroom.
• An introduction to the basic model of teaching English in Chinese universities
• An introduction to the teaching methods used in Chinese university English (designing English content based on standardised test-taking), which are characterised by an emphasis on reading writing vocabulary and grammar and a relative lack of emphasis on oral language development, and therefore a general lack of an authentic English learning environment for students.
3.3 Why and How Students in Chinese Universities Apply English Fun Dubbing to Study English-Speaking (reference citations are required).
• Firstly, Chinese university students generally lack the most important practice time for learning spoken English in the English classroom and authentic English environment. Therefore, English Fun Dubbing can offer its users authentic materials, such as Movies, TV shows, etc., which creates an authentic English learning environment for its users.
• English Fun Dubbing is easy to use and the basic features are free and affordable for most Chinese students. Note that you will need to include some screenshots of English Fun Dubbing pages, practice dubbing pages, etc. in the appendix to demonstrate the features of the software.
• Finally, write about your own experiences with using English Fun Dubbing, pretending that you used it when you were a Chinese student at a Chinese university to practice speaking English.
4. Evaluation (2300 words)
4.1 Evaluation Tools ——Session 5 & Session 10 PPT
• You should indicate that this evaluation belongs to post-evaluation.（You will need to state that you have used English Fun Dubbing to practise speaking after school when you were at university in China.Describe some experiences.） After that, focus on the evaluation framework you are using for your assessment, it should combine with Chapelle’s framework, Leakley’s framework, and parts of items in Reinders and Pegrum, (2016）to integrate a new evaluation tools for evaluating this specific tool （the five items from the Chapelle’s framework (language learning potential, learner fit, meaning focus, authenticity, practicality) and two items from the Leakley’s framework (learner control, error correction and feedback) and Reinders and Pegrum’s framework’s Category 5: Affective design (Chapelle, 2001; Leakley, 2011; Reinders and Pegrum, 2016). The usual framework for assessing TELL is Chapelle and Leakley, but my teacher thought that the Reinders and Pegrum framework would be a good one to add to the assessment of MALL, so this framework has been added here to meet my teacher’s preference.
• Here, you should introduce each framework in a separate section, under a subheading, and then describe the definition of each item and why you are using this criterion to evaluate English Fun Dubbing, taking into account the characteristics and considerations of English speaking learning. For example, in Chapelle’s language learning potential, you should write about the need to use these criteria to assess whether English Fun Dubbing can be used as an English speaking learning tool and how much potential it has to be used to improve students’ English speaking skills as an English dubbing software. The learner fit needs to assess whether the dubbing tasks in English Fun Dubbing are of an appropriate level of difficulty, or whether there are different tasks of different levels of difficulty to suit different learners of English.
• In Reinders and Pegrum’s framework, the Affective design was chosen to assess students’ anxiety, motivation, and engagement when learning to speak using English Fun Dubbing. Finally, a complete checklist extracted from these three items should be included in the appendix. (reference citations are required).
4.2 The Evaluation of English Fun Dubbing on Improving English-speaking Beyond the Classroom——Session 5 PPT
• You will need to write each criterion as a separate subsection and then evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of English Fun Dubbing as an English speaking learning tool within each subsection based on the context of English learning in Chinese universities, student characteristics, speaking learning characteristics and the functional features of English Fun Dubbing.
4.2.1 Language Learning Potential (reference citations are required).
• Overall, English Fun Dubbing has Language learning potential. The main reason is that English Fun Dubbing, as a fun English dubbing software designed specifically to improve spoken English, provides a wealth of authentic learning materials, and the essential element for improving spoken English learning is to create an authentic learning environment for students. It is mentioned in the context that Chinese university English classes generally lack an authentic English learning environment, so the use of English Fun Dubbing can help students to have access to rich English speaking practice materials to a certain extent, thus helping them to improve their English speaking.
• In addition, the criterion of language learning potential focuses on assessing Chinese students’ perceptions of themselves in English learning and they are afraid of making mistakes and losing face. This is why they pay attention to the grammatical errors in their output during the dubbing process. English Fun Dubbing, on the other hand, has a feature that allows users to self-correct and repeat the recording for repeated practice, which satisfies the language learning potential.
• However, you should also mention the disadvantage that although the dubbing materials used by students to practise speaking English with English Fun Dubbing are authentic, the quality of these authentic materials for teaching English (whether they are suitable for teaching English) cannot be guaranteed and can be combined with your own experience of using English Fun Dubbing. You can tell us about your own experience with English Fun Dubbing (you can make up a few sentences).(reference citations are required).
4.2.2 Learner Fits
In general, English Fun Dubbing fits into the learner fits, and the English dubbing materials in English Fun Dubbing are divided into different levels of difficulty, beginner, intermediate and advanced. This allows students with different levels of English speaking skills to practice dubbing at different levels of difficulty according to their needs. Users can choose to upgrade when their abilities improve.(reference citations are required).
4.2.3 Meaning Focus and Authenticity
• For example, English Fun Dubbing allows different users to collaborate on the same dubbing material in different roles, which facilitates interaction between users to a certain extent and effectively imitates real-life speaking scenarios, in line with the Meaning focus and authenticity.
Secondly, English Fun Dubbing is an authentic learning material, which is in line with the actual situation in Chinese universities (the classroom is grammar-centred, with little exposure to authentic material and learning materials). This is a good example of how English Fun Dubbing can help students to improve their English speaking skills, taking into account the actual situation in Chinese universities (where the classroom is dominated by grammar teachers and there is little exposure to authentic materials and learning English socially with others).(reference citations are required).
• English Fun Dubbing generally meets this criterion as well. As a powerful English fun dubbing software, English Fun Dubbing provides technical support and a good environment for students to practice speaking.
Describe what specific features of English Fun Dubbing meet the needs of students for convenient speaking learning, such as the wide selection of materials available, the ability to share dubbing results to social media, the ability to dub with classmates, etc., and highlight them in relation to the characteristics of speaking learning.(reference citations are required).
4.2.5 Learner Control
• English Fun Dubbing does not have learner control, because English Fun Dubbing is a self-learning app, it is not supervised by the teacher, so there are some negative effects, such as students not practising, or being interested at first and then being lazy and wasting away.
You can illustrate this in the context of Chinese students’ lack of autonomy in learning, as they are used to teacher-centred passive learning and lack learner autonomy, and English Fun Dubbing does not have the ability to control learners to focus on tasks.(reference citations are required).
4.2.6 Error Correction and Feedback
• English Fun Dubbing has error correction and feedback functions. You should firstly introduce error correction and feedback functions. This is because Chinese students are characterised by a preference for getting feedbacks that can help them correct their mistakes and encourage them. If there is a lack of error correction and feedback functions, it will reduce their motivation to practice speaking to some extent.
• However, you also need to mention the disadvantages of English Fun Dubbing, which uses a designated speaking assessment technique for SSC exams that does not meet the English proficiency assessment and needs of university students and can be seriously biased for exaggerated and colloquial intonation scoring.(reference citations are required).
4.2.7 Affective Design
• English Fun Dubbing satisfies affective design, because the users can find many authentic materials by using English Fun Dubbing to practice their English speaking.
• You need to describe the role of authentic materials in English language learning, for example, to increase students’ interest and motivation to learn; students can also collaborate with their peers on dubbing; the absence of teacher supervision can alleviate learning anxiety (here you need to add a few online technologies that can help students alleviate anxiety in learning). Write your own experience of using English Fun Dubbing, it can be a fabricated experience.(reference citations are required).
4.3 Possible Suggestions for Improving English Fun Dubbing——Session 10 PPT
4.3.1 Improving Error-Correcting and Feedback Functions
• You could write that in the future different scoring criteria could be adopted for different users (primary school, junior and senior school students and university students) to make scoring more accurate.
4.3.2 Applying English Fun Dubbing as a Teaching Supplement in University Classrooms
• You could suggest that teachers could introduce English Fun Dubbing as a teaching aid to create an authentic learning environment in university English classes in the future, so that students’ speaking practice can be guided and supervised by teachers.
• In the suggestions section you will need to evaluate which suggestions you think are better and which are more difficult to implement in the context of the Chinese context, and give reasons for this.
5. Conclusion and Limitations (200 to 300 words)
• A brief conclusion of the whole paper
• Limitations of this paper
• Simple suggestions for future research
Some references recommendations: (for more, please cite from the five Sessions and the relevant Handout)
Beatty, K. (2010) Teaching & researching: Computer-assisted language learning. Routledge.
Boblett, N. (2012) Scaffolding: Defining the metaphor. Studies in Applied Linguistics and TESOL, 12(2): pp.1-16.
Chapelle, C.A. (2001) Computer applications in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chapelle, C.A. (2009) The relationship between second language acquisition theory and computer‐assisted language learning. The modern language journal, 93: pp.741-753.
Dalgarno, B. (2001) Interpretations of constructivism and consequences for computer assisted learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 32(2): pp.183-194.
Gao, J.Y. and Huang, J.B. (2010) On communicative competence in curriculum design: a comparison of the college English curriculum requirements and the English curriculum standards. Polyglossia International Journal 18: pp.73-86.
Kukulska-Hulme, A. and Shield, L. (2008) ‘An overview of mobile assisted language learning: From content delivery to supported collaboration and interaction’, ReCALL (Cambridge, England), 20(3), pp. 271–289. doi:10.1017/S0958344008000335.
Leakey, J. (2011) Evaluating computer-assisted language learning. Peter Lang AG.
Levy, M. and Stockwell, G. (2013) CALL dimensions: Options and issues in computer-assisted language learning. Routledge.(I can’t find it, but you need it. Please help me find it)
McGrath, I. (2016) Materials evaluation and design for language teaching. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Reinders, H. and Pegrum, M., (2016) Supporting Language Learning in the Move. SLA research and materials development for language learning, pp.221-233.
Tomlinson, B. (2013) Introduction: Are materials developing. Developing materials for language teaching, pp.1-14.
Zhang, S. (2016). Mobile English learning: An empirical study on an APP, English fun dubbing. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 11, pp.4-8