PHET SIMULATIONS SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT
PART 1: UNDER PRESSURE
Part 1A. Terminology
Use LEO course resources or other scientific resources to define or explain the following terms relevant to this laboratory. Do your best to use your own words to define these terms:
1. International System of Units or System Internationale (SI) Units
3. Atmosphere measurement units
5. Pressure measurement units
6. Pascal (Pa) pressure measurement units
Part 1A. Procedure:
1. Go to the PhET simulation “Under Pressure” https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/under-pressure
2. Push the big Play arrow.
3. Start with the default settings (Fluid Density = Water, Gravity = Earth, Atmosphere = On, Units = Metric).
4. Fill the tank with water (up to 0 meters) and select “Ruler” and “Grid.”
5. Adjust the ruler to line up with the grid as shown in the image below.
6. Click on the pressure gauge and drag it toward the water.
7. Using the pressure gauge, measure the pressure in the water at every 0.50 m from the surface (0 meters) to the bottom.
8. Record measurements made at each level on the table below.
9. Provide a screenshot of your measurement at 1.5 meters*
Part 1A. Table. Earth
Depth (m) Pressure (kPa = N/m2) on Earth
* Provide a screenshot of your measurement at 1.5 meters
1. Describe the pattern of the data you entered in the table.
2. In one statement, describe the relationship between the level of water and measured water pressure.
3. Using terms from your answers to Part 1A: Terminology, discuss how atmospheric pressure changes with distance above a planet’s surface. Cite the sources you used to assist with answering this question.
1. Reset the interactive activity by clicking on the icon in the lower right corner (white arrow on orange circle).
2. Start with the default settings (Fluid Density = Water, Gravity = Earth, Atmosphere = On, Units = Metric).
3. Fill the tank with water (up to 0 meters) and select “Ruler” and “Grid.”
4. Set the planet to Jupiter.
5. Click on the pressure gauge and drag it toward the water.
6. Using the pressure gauge, measure the pressure in the water at every 0.50 m from the surface (0 meters) to the bottom.
7. Record measurements made at each level on the table below.
8. Provide a screenshot of Jupiter for your measurement at 1.5 meters*
9. Provide a screenshot of Jupiter for your measurement at 3.0 meters*
Part 1B. Table. Jupiter
Depth (m) Pressure (kPa = N/m2) on Jupiter
* Provide screenshots of your measurements at 1.5 meters and at 3.0 meters for Jupiter
1. How does the atmospheric pressure on Jupiter at different depth levels of water compare with those measured for Earth? For example, are they similar in magnitude (such as 10s, 100s, 1000s, etc), and do the pressures increase at the same rate (such as doubling, changing geometrically, or exponentially)?
2. Why does gravity impact atmospheric pressure? [HINT: Think about your answers to Part 1A. Terminology; and use similar reasoning used for your answers to Part 1A questions #2 and #3.] 3. Examine the differences in atmospheric pressure recorded in the two tables above. Discuss whether the quantitative differences between the measured atmospheric pressures (in kPa) for the two planets at the different levels corroborate (are consistent with) the differences in the gravity for Earth and Jupiter.
1. Start at the same settings at the end of Procedure 1B (Fluid Density = Water, Gravity = Jupiter, Atmosphere = On, Units = Metric; Ruler and Grid selected) and with the pressure gauge at 3.0 meters.
2. Drain all the water from the tank
3. Provide a screenshot of Jupiter for your measurement at 3.0 meters with all the water drained from the tank*
1. Describe the change in atmospheric pressure after you drained the water from the tank.
2. What is the difference in the atmospheric pressure on Jupiter for a tank full of water and for an empty tank? Calculate the pressure difference. [HINT: Subtract.] 3. What is the reason (physics) for the atmospheric pressure difference that you calculated in question #2? In other words, why is there is a difference in atmospheric pressure for a tank full of water and an empty tank? [HINT: Think about your answers to Part 1A. Terminology; and use similar reasoning used for your answers to Part 1A questions #2 and #3.] 4. Provide a screenshot of Jupiter for your measurement at 3.0 meters with all the water drained from the tank* (same as indicated in Part 1C Step #3).
PART 2: ATMOSPHERE, OCEANS, AND CLIMATE
MONASH University Simple Climate Model
1) Select “enter”
2) Scroll down to Tutorials. Select Tutorials.
3) Under “Basic Level,” select “Role of Processes I.”
4) Expand your browser screen (or zoom out) to be able to see Experiment A frame (left side) and Experiment B frame (right side) in one window as shown in the image below.
5) Default settings need to be: Map (tab) and Global mean (lower left option)
6) To learn more about each factor (also referred to as process or switch) that contributes to climate, select the icon/graphic to the right of each named factor in the Experiment A or Experiment B frames. (Note that “processes” are also referred to as “switches” because a change in these processes can “switch” the features of climate.)
7) The animation cycles through from January to December as a default. To stop the animation, select the Stop option on the slider in the middle at the bottom of the page. You can choose any month by moving the slider.
Part 2: Terminology
Use LEO course resources or other scientific resources to define the terms below. Do your best to use your own words to define these terms. Cite your sources.
1. Albedo (in relation to ice and permafrost)
2. Biogeochemical cycle
3. Hydrological cycle
4. Carbon cycle
5. Greenhouse gases
6. Climate versus Weather
PURPOSE: In this set of activities, you will examine how each of five factors about our Earth impacts our climate. You will be able to compare two Earths, an Experiment A Earth compared with an Experiment B Earth. For Experiment B Earth, you will remove one of the factors that contributes to climate which will help demonstrate the contribution that the factor makes to our climate on Earth. You will compare the global mean temperature change for a month that you choose for each of the five factors. Feel free to play with the interactive or explore other animations/tutorials at the Climate Model website.
Part 2–TABLE 1: Data
Factor/Process/Switch Month Experiment A-Global Mean Temperature (oC)
+FACTOR Experiment B-Global Mean Temperature (oC)
-FACTOR Difference-Global Mean Temperature (oC)
*Include a screenshot for each month listed in the table. Five screenshots for Part 2.
1. Use data from the “Monash simple climate model (Deconstruction of the mean climate)” to complete Part 2—TABLE 1: Data above.
2. Choose a month by using the slider at the bottom of the page. Enter the month in the Table above (2nd column)
3. In Experiment B frame, remove the check beside Ice-Albedo. Scroll to bottom to select Update Figures. Animation will start again. Stop it and choose your month again.
4. Take a screenshot of your Experiment A and Experiment B frames and the global mean patterns for your selected month. Include the screenshot in (or with) this lab.
5. Enter the “global mean” temp for Experiment A and Experiment B into Part 2—TABLE 1: Data (Columns 3 and 4, respectively)
6. Enter “different [A]-[B] [global mean oC]” temperature into Part 2—TABLE 1: Data (Column 5)
7. Restore check mark for Ice-Albedo then proceed to next factor
8. Repeat steps 2-7 for factors: Oceans, CO2 Concentration, Hydrological cycle, and Atmosphere
9. Include screenshots for all five factors (processes/switches) in or with submission of your lab document.* Assure that each screen shot shows the settings for Experiment A and Experiment B as well as the third “Difference” plot.
Part 2: QUESTIONS
1. For each factor/process/switch in Part 2—Table 1, describe the consequences of disrupting that factor/process/switch as revealed in the screenshot you submitted. Descriptions of the consequences should be evident in the screenshot you submitted. That is, your descriptions should match the content of the screenshot.
In your description, include:
(a) description of the difference pattern and color distribution between Experiment A (unchanged) and Experiment B (disrupted process) as revealed in the third “Difference” plot
(b) discussion of the quantitative difference in global mean temperature as revealed in the third “Difference” plot.
(3) CO2 Concentration
(4) Hydrological cycle
2. Using your own words and based on your data above, summarize your understanding of the effect of each of the factors/processes/switches on global mean temperature. Be sure to study your findings and to interpret your observations. Your summary should reflect what your data evidence reveals to you.
c. CO2 concentration
d. Hydrological cycle